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During the American Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle being shipped from Florida to feed the Confederate forces.The city was blockaded by Union forces, who gained control of nearby Fort Clinch.A platted town was established there in 1822, a year after the United States gained Florida from Spain; it was named after Andrew Jackson, the first military governor of the Florida Territory and seventh President of the United States.Harbor improvements since the late 19th century have made Jacksonville a major military and civilian deep-water port.
Augustine's position as the most important settlement in Florida was solidified. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British called the Cow Ford; these names ostensibly reflect the fact that cattle were brought across the river there.The location of Fort Caroline is subject to debate but a reconstruction of the fort was established on the St. Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763 after the French and Indian War, and the British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. The British introduced the cultivation of sugar cane, indigo and fruits, as well the export of lumber.As a result, the northeastern Florida area prospered economically more than it had under the Spanish.On Black Hammock Island in the national Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, a University of North Florida team discovered some of the oldest remnants of pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BC.In the 16th century, the beginning of the historical era, the region was inhabited by the Mocama, a coastal subgroup of the Timucua people.